Quiz 3d Questions
“International Courts,” Helena Cobban (Black Board)
As stated in “International Courts,” how are today’s war crimes tribunals different from those conducted after World War II in Nuremberg and Tokyo.
The war crimes tribunals of late have been disastrously over encumbered and expensive. The ICTR (International Crimes Tribunal for Rwanda) had at present time prosecuted 25 individuals at the cost of 40 million dollars per person (1 billion U.S. dollars total). Also the current ICC system is protracted and built around civilian law. This is in direct contrast to the U.S. laden courts of Nuremberg and Tokyo that introduced evidence with regard for appeals from the defendants and carried out exacting punishments to most of the defendants within its first year of existence.
Thirdly the prosecutorial regime no longer guarantees that conflict will abate or cease simply due to ICC indictments. Indeed the indictment of LRA (Lord’s resistance Army) General Jacob Kony and his lieutenants only exacerbated the situation and led to more hacking, more pillaging. Fourthly the ICC is a cumbersome institution that does not always meet the needs of the effected country. The South African truth commission is mentioned as one system that was not only efficient an cheap, but also was mandated by the will of the people. Fifthly the idea that amnesty should not be allowed under any circumstance needs to be critiqued. The amnesty programs in Mozambique and South Africa allowed for quick resolution of the internal matters of the state and allowed for society to heal the wounds through time. Likewise the situation in Rwanda is criticized as societal wounds are deep and effectual to the population as a large number of the society was imprisoned as the government tried to mete out justice while doubly tightening its grip on power in the country. Sixthly the idea that war crimes tribunals prevent further atrocities is staid. One factual anecdote that is related in the article is how Milosevic even when warned sternly about the prospects of prosecution and witnessing the prosecution of his neighbors he still concertedly continued to defy U.N. resolutions and ethnically cleanse his and his neighbor’s populations. Lastly the idea that the ICC is needed is rebuffed by the author. She cites the case of Radovan Karadzic and others as evidence that the ICTY and other ad hoc courts like it only make the prosecution of these dangerous, at large war criminals not just difficult but down right impossible.
- The question does not ask about the amnesty programs, as a result you missed part of the point of the question: how are the conditions different, i.e., occupied countries vs. human rights violators at large.
- The Nuremberg and Tokyo courts were part of a broader political project to rehabilitate the occupied countries socially and economically, rather than to simply try guilt or innocence and hand out harsh punishments. Consequently, these courts were streamlined and efficient, possibly to a fault regarding due process.
#24. Al-Qa’ida’s Pakistan Strategy, Don Rassler
As detailed in “Al-Qa’ida’s Pakistan Strategy,”:
- What are the ways that al-Qa’ida acts to foster jihad against the Pakistani state while taking a secondary role in the organization and implementation of violence?
Al-Qaida is engaged in multifaceted proxy war against the Pakistani republic. The way in which they go about this insurgency is done in three key steps. The first is by lending validity to the anti-Pakistani state violence by giving religious credence to the militants through the use of Fatwa’s, and Islamic jihad. Another way that they influence the fighting is as a behind the scenes force to most major attacks. For instance a particular deed may be carried out by a splinter group in Pakistan (e.g. the assassination of Benazir Bhutto), but al-Qaida is the one who may have supplied the small arms, or assembled the bomb so that it’s built correctly. The third and final way that Al-Qaida conducts a proxy war against the Pakistani Government is that they serve as intermediaries between the various militant groups thereby building coalitions and fostering an atmosphere of cooperation against the pro U.S. Pakistani government.
- Explain al-Qa’ida’s “ideational shift” that involves its view of its enemies.
Al-Qaida has recently undergone a major ideational shift as pertains to it’s enemies. In the shift a past distinction between “near” and “far” enemies is wiped away and a new ideology is promulgated. In this ideology the near and far are considered the same, one concrete enemy that sees the overlapping relations between governments as one in the same.
- Good 5/5
The Coming Resource Wars, Michael T. Klare (BB)
As outlined in “The Coming Resource Wars.”:
- Discuss the findings of a report recently commissioned by the U.S. Department of Defense regarding global climate change.
In the October 2003 Defense Department report prepared by a contracting agency in California it includes several ominous signs and warnings. The first of which that is discussed is the idea that climate change will be gradual and manageable. This the report says will turn out to be false and that the resulting effects from the climate change will mean that hurricanes and storms will damage large areas and these areas will suffer from a “dustbowl effect”. The survivors in these climate ravaged areas will fight for scarce resources in huge pitched battles over land. The report also states that ideology, religion, or nationalism will not be a determining factor in these wars but rather the need to acquire and hoard resources for the nation’s people. This, the report says, is a new and existential threat to the determined regions that would be most affected. Struggles to obtain resources, the report says, could lead to wholesale destabilization of entire nation-states, and these resource wars, the report argues, would only exacerbate the problems that the concerned countries would currently be facing.
- Why is a strictly military response on the part of the United States to global climate change unlikely to be sufficient?
A military response to these global climactic woes would not be measured by any sense of the word. The most obvious reason is that it would exact a painful toll to the United States in blood and treasure as we attempt to maintain a foothold in vital resource rich regions (prima facto Saudi Arabia). Also equally as obvious and no less important a fact the continued warming of the globe will produce a tumultuous mid-latitude cyclone (think El Nino) that would reap heavy devastation on the United States further costing more blood, and more treasure.
- Okay 5/5
#33. Africa and the Global Economic Crisis: Threats, Opportunities, and Responses, Jeffrey Herbst Et Al.
As outlined in “Africa and the Global Economic Crisis,” what were the main global changes that occurred prior to the economic meltdown that benefited Africa along with the rest of the world?
In the article there were many free market protocols outlined that African nations readily accepted.
The first that is mentioned is the adoption of national and regional economies. That is to say the closed off and truncated economies of the cold war era were very rapidly replaced during the creation of the new world order with globalized and regional institutions that promoted trade throughout the economic blocs or on a global level.
The second is the globalization of emergent economies such as China and India. By opening up these countries to liberal reforms, laissez faire economic principles, and the reduction of export control regimes these countries and the countries that they trade with throughout the globe (particularly China and Africa) began to reap the fruits of their labor if you will.
The third protocol outlined is the downward pressure on wages combined with the upward pressure on productivity. By accelerating these two factors cheap goods flooded the market place making a middle class and upper middle class existence possible for more workers in developing countries, while developed countries were able to reap the benefits of the low price of the goods thereby capitalizing on the deflationary aspect of the bipartite trade regime.
Lastly and of note The consumer credit boom along with the housing market coupled with deregulation in these respective sectors of not only the American economy but European economies as well (think Iceland) is what ultimately allowed for the free flow of goods and the transaction of monies between countries at the levels that we were seeing in 2007 and up until the crash.
- The integration of national and regional economies sparked by the application of digital technologies to communication flows, or the phenomenon of globalization
- Half of the world’s population became participants in the global market economy